Saturday, March 23, 2013

Attention Deficit Hyperactive Disorder and Other Health Impairments

Brown, Thomas E. (2007). A New Approach to Attention Deficit Disorder. Educational Leadership, 64, (5), 26-27.

The researcher states that 7.8% of students from ages 4 to 17 are diagnosed as having Attention Deficit Disorder or Attention Deficit Hyperactivity Disorder, and school officials are unsure how to respond. More researchers are beginning to believe ADD is not a behavior disorder, but it is an impairment of the brain’s executive system. Brown states there are six executive functions that people with ADD/ADHD have difficulty in utilizing, which are activation, focus, effort, emotion, memory, and action. A diagnosis of ADD/ADHD means the person has a significant impairment compared to their peers over a prolonged period of time and can vary depending on when the symptoms appear. ADD/ADHD are often thought to be a lack of willpower. Instead it is the chemical makeup of the brain that causes the impairment. For some students with ADD/ADHD medication helps only when it is in the system. However other students with ADD/ADHD have other learning disabilities, and medication alone is not effective in facilitating learning. Because it has been proven that ADD/ADHD is not a behavior problem, Brown suggests evaluations that address cognitive impairments. Brown concludes that early intervention is crucial to the mental development of the student.

Glimps, Blanche J. (2008). Are We Preparing Students with Physical and Health Disabilities for the 21st Century?, Physical Disabilities: Education and Related Services 26, (2), 1-12.

Glimps suggests that schools are not doing enough to prepare students with physical disabilities for their futures in the diverse job market in today’s world. Glimps believes the students are not being educated on global issues that may affect students’ future employment. Therefore the education system should strive to broaden the students’ understanding of the world, which should be accessible to students with physical or health disabilities. However, the issues are not addressed in NCLB. The National Council for Social Studies recognizes problems facing students today is the failure to provide a global understanding leads to a narrow view of the world and in some instances leads to prejudice. Glimps feels teachers of students with physical and health impairments often provide limited cultural knowledge to their students. Furthermore, Glimps suggests the technologies provided to students with physical and health impairments are not developing quick enough to keep up with the information technologies. Therefore, Glimps suggests the students are not properly prepared to enter the globalized workforce.

Potts-Datema, William, and Taras, Howard. (2005). Chronic Health Conditions and Student Performance at School. Journal of School Health, 75, (7) 255-266.

Research has proven there is a direct correlation between students’ health and their academic success. According to their research, Taras and Potts-Datema suggest an association between diabetes and cognitive ability. Their research concludes that the verbal IQ, visuospatial/ nonverbal functioning, memory, and attention all show a deficit in young students with diabetes depending on the severity of the diabetes. Students with sickle cell anemia may experience complications that prevent attendance or affect the student’s performance. The research shows the students with sickle cell anemia tend to score lower on IQ assessments, and they may be impaired in their language, processing abilities, attention, and memory. Students with have learning problems that vary according to the severity of the epilepsy, such as lower IQ levels, lower academic achievement, and inattentiveness. Students with other chronic diseases often experience lower academic achievement due to their inability to attend class on a regular basis.

Stormont, Melissa A. (2008). Increase Academic Success for Children with ADHD Using Sticky Notes and Highlighters. Intervention in School and Clinic, 43, (5), 305-308.

Stormont’s research states that students with ADHD account for 3-5% of the student population in the general education classroom. Their characteristics include selective attention problems, sustained attention problems, impulsivity, and high levels of verbal and motor activity. Stormont suggests using sticky notes and highlighters to help the students in and out of the classroom. They can use the notes as a guide to keep them on task, and to mark their ending point when taking a break. They can use the highlighters to either color code tasks or to determine the order of the tasks. Furthermore, the notes can be used to help the students study, prompt students, organize steps, keep students on track, and help them estimate time to spend on each step of a process or task. The sticky notes can also be used to remind students of materials to bring home or return to school. They can also be used to help students to outline or summarize reading material. Among other uses for the notes, they can also help students self-monitor their progress and their behavior. Another suggestion is to have the students to write down questions they may have while the teacher is leading class discussion.

Zambo, Debby, (2008). Looking at ADHD Through Multiple Lenses: Identifying Girls with the Inattentive Type. Intervention in School and Clinic, 44, (1), 34-40.

Female students with ADHD often withdraw from school and themselves often due to the lack of early intervention. Zambo gives a case study on a female student with ADHD. Unlike the boys, she internalized her behaviors. She was unable to become accepted socially and teachers did not think she cared about school. It was not until the student was in high school that teachers recognized her as exhibiting symptoms of ADHD. Today, students with ADHD are inattentive, and exhibit hyperactivity and impulsivity. Students with ADHD often have concurrent learning disabilities and learning problems. Girls often become stressed, depressed, and exhibit anxiety. Because they internalize their behaviors, girls seem to daydream and be in their own fantasy world. Female students also seem to be socially withdrawn, exhibit low self-esteem/image, and are rejected by their peers. Furthermore, they often do not set goals, are not organized, and have difficulty planning and self-monitoring. Therefore, Zambo suggests that faculty, who recognize internalizing behaviors in girls, should examine the possibility of ADHD.

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